Enslaved and Freed African Muslims: Spiritual Wayfarers in the South and Lowcountry

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Sources and Credits

About the Author
Dr. Muhammad Fraser-Rahim
obtained his Ph.D. in African Studies with a focus on Islamic thought, spirituality and modernity issues from Howard University. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor at The Citadel and the Executive Director (North America) at Quilliam International.

Additonal Credits
A special thanks to the two research assistants on this project, Ashley Hollinshead and Colby Causey, LDHI graduate assistant from the College of Charleston-Citadel Graduate History M.A. Program.

Editorial Contributors
Dr. Mia LaShaye Carey, Anthropology, National Park Service
Dr. Fatimah Fanusie, American History, Howard Thurman Historical Home
Dr. Rebecca Shumway, West African History, College of Charleston
Dr. Latif Tarik, African Diaspora History, Elizabeth City State University


Sources and Further Reading

Ahari, Muhammad A. al-, Selim Aga, Omar Ibn Said, Abu Bakr Sadiq, Job Ben Sulaiman, and Nicholas Said. Five Classic Muslim Slave NarrativesChicago, IL: Magribine Press, 2006.

Austin, Allan D. African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles. Routledge, 2011.

Barcia, Manuel. “West African Islam in Colonial Cuba.” Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Comparative Studies Slavery & Abolition 35, no. 2 (2014): 292-305

Berg, Herbert. “Mythmaking in the African American Muslim Context: The Moorish Science Temple, the Nation of Islam, and the American Society of Muslims.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 73, no. 3 (September 1, 2005): 685–703. 

Beydoun, Khaled. “Antebellum Islam.” Howard Law Journal 58, no. 1 (2014): 141-95

Collins, Robert O. “The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands.” African and Asian Studies 5, no. 3/4 (2006): 325–46.

Conyers Jr., James L., ed., Africana Faith: A Religious History of the African American Crusade in Islam, Lanham, Maryland: Hamilton Books, 2017. 

Conyers Jr., James L. and Abdul Pitre, eds., Africana Islamic Studies. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2016.

Creel, Margaret Washington. A Peculiar People: Slave Religion and Community-Culture Among the Gullahs. New York: NYU Press, 1988.

Curtis, Edward E. Muslims in America: A Short History. Oxford University Press, USA, 2009.

Danin, Robert. Black Pilgrimage to Islam. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Diouf, Sylviane A. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: NYU Press, 2013.

Fisher, Allan G. B. and Humphrey J. Fisher. Slavery and Muslim Society in AfricaNew York: Doubleday, 1971.

Georgia Writers' Project. Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies Among the Georgia Coastal Negroes. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1940.

GhaneaBassiri, Kambiz. A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Gomez, Michael A. Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Gomez, Michael A. “Muslims in Early America.” Journal of Southern History. 60 (1994): 671–710.

Gomez, Michael A. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Hamel, Chouki El. Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Kane, Ousmane Oumar. Beyond Timbuktu: An Intellectual History of Muslim West AfricaCambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.

Lovejoy, Paul E. “The Urban Background of Enslaved Muslims in the Americas.” Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Comparative Studies Slavery & Abolition 26, no. 3 (2005): 349–76.

Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Marable, Manning, and Hisham Aidi, eds. Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

McCloud, Aminah Beverly. African American IslamLondon: Routledge, 1995.

Noor, Abdul. The Supreme Understanding: The Teachings of Islam in North America. San Jose: Writers Club Press, 2002.

O’Connor, Kathleen. “The Islamic Jesus: Messiahhood and Human Divinity in African American Muslim Exegesis.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66, no. 3 (Autumn 1998): 493–532.

Reis, João José. Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia. Translated by Arthur Brakel. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Rosenblatt, Naomi. "Orientalism in American Popular Culture." Penn History Review 16, no. 2 (Spring 2009): 51-69.

Segal, Ronald. Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. London: Atlantic Books, 2003.

Said, Edward W. Orientalism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2014.

Walz, Terence, and Kenneth M. Cuno. Race and Slavery in the Middle East: Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in Nineteenth-Century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean. American University in Cairo Press, 2010.

Willis, John Ralph. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa: Islam and the Ideology of Enslavement. London: F. Cass, 1985.