Sources

About the Authors

Chris Williams is the Research Impact Officer in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Liverpool. He recently co-edited Life and Limb: Perspectives on the American Civil War with the Liverpool University Press, and is currently researching the history of Abercromby Square in Liverpool.

Jim Powell is studying for a postgraduate degree at the University of Liverpool on the effect of the American Civil War on the British cotton trade. He has retired after a career in business and politics, and is also now a successful novelist.

Joseph G. Kelly is a PhD student at the University of Liverpool. His research focuses on the links between British business and slavery, and how these connections were rationalized in the context of widespread anti-slavery beliefs during the Victorian era. He is the recipient of an Economic and Social Research Council studentship for a project entitled "Supply Chains and Moral Responsibility: Slavery and Capitalism after British Emancipation." This project includes a collaboratiion with the International Slavery Museum in Liverpool.

Editorial Contributors

James Walvin, University of York
Susan-Mary Grant, Newcastle University
Emily West, University of Reading  

Sources

Secondary Sources

Allen, Adrian. The Building of Abercromby Square. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press, 1986.

Ball, Douglas B. Financial Failure and Confederate Defeat. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Barley, Tony. Myths of the Slave Power. Liverpool, England: Coach House Press, 1992.

Beckert, Sven. Empire of Cotton: A Global History. New York, New York: Random House, Inc., 2012. 

Blackett, Richard. Divided Hearts: Britain and the American Civil War. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 2001.

Campbell, Duncan A. English Public Opinion and the American Civil War. Woodbridge, England: Boydell, 2003.

Cooper, William J. Jefferson Davis, American. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 2001. 

Cross, C.  Lincoln’s Man In Liverpool: Consul Dudley and the Legal Battle to Stop Confederate Warships. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Doyle, Don. The Cause of All Nations: An International History of the American Civil War. New York, New York: Basic Books, 2015. 

Drew, J. (ed). "All the Year Round, Vol. VI." Dickens Journal Online (2009): 1-12. 

Dumbell, Stanley. "The Origin of Cotton Futures." In J. Keynes and D. Macgregor (ed.), Economic History vol. 1, 1926-29. London, England: Macmillan & Co., 1929.

Ellis, Frampton Erroll. Some Historic families of South Carolina. Atlanta, Georgia: The Foote & Davies Co., 1905.

Ellison, Mary. Support for Secession: Lancashire and the American Civil War. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

Foreman, Amanda. A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. New York, New York: Random House, Inc., 2001.

Hall, Nigel. "The Cotton Brokers and the Development of the Liverpool Cotton Market c. 1800 to 1914." DPhil diss., Oxford University, 1999.

Hall, Nigel. "The Liverpool Cotton Market and Cotton Re-exports, c. 1815-1914," Northern History vol. 43 no. 2 (Sept. 2006): 257-271.

Hall, Nigel. "The Liverpool Cotton Market and the American Civil War," Northern History vol. 34 (1998): 149-169.

Hemelryk, Paul.  Forty Years' Reminiscences of the Cotton Market. Liverpool, England: Rockcliff Bros., 1916.

Hughes, Francis. “Liverpool and the Confederate States: Fraser Trenholm and Company Operations during the American Civil War.” PhD diss., University of Keele, 1996.

Hussey, John. Cruisers, Cotton and Confederates. Liverpool waterfront in the days of the Confederacy. Birkenhead, England: Countyvise, 2009.

Kelly, Thomas. For Advancement of Learning: The University of Liverpool, 1881-1981. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press, 1981. 

Merli, Frank J. Great Britain and the Confederate Navy, 1861-1865. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2004.

Milton, David Hepburn. Lincoln's Spymaster: Thomas Haines Dudley and the Liverpool Network. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2003.

Nicholson, Susan. The Changing Face of Liverpool, 1207 – 1727. Liverpool, England: Merseyside Archaeological Society, 1981.

Phillips, Caryll. The Atlantic Sound. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000. 

Pike, W.T. (ed.). Edwardian Biography: Lancashire. Brighton, England: W.T.Pike, 1903.

Sexton, Jay. Debtor Diplomacy: Finance and American Foreign Relations in the Civil War Era 1837-1873. Oxford, England: Clarendon, 2005.

Spencer, W. F. The Confederate Navy in Europe. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama, 1983.

Tuffnell, Stephen. “Expatriate Foreign Relations: Britain’s American Community and Transnational Approaches to the U.S. Civil War,” Diplomatic History vol. 0 no. 0 (August 2015, Online Edition): 1-29.  

Twemlow, J.A (ed.). Liverpool Town Books, Volume 1. Liverpool, England: University Press, 1918.

Vaughan, J. and K. Williams. A Brief History of 19 Abercromby Square. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press, 1996.

Walker, Gerald S. The Private Journal of Georgiana Gholson Walker, 1862-1865 - with selections from the post war years, 1865-1876. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: Confederate Publishing Company, 1963.

White, Horace. ‘Fossets’. A record of two centuries of engineering. Bromborough, England: Fawcett Preston & Company Ltd, 1958.

Wise, Stephen. Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running During the Civil War. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

Primary Sources

‘A Cotton Spinner'. The Anomalies of the Cotton Trade: the Liverpool Brokerage System. Manchester, England: Simms and Dinham, 1841.

Bowker, A (Ed.). “In Memoriam;” or Funeral Records of Liverpool Celebrities. Liverpool, England: A Bowker & Son, 1876.

Bulloch, J. D. The Secret Service of the Confederate States in Europe: Or how the Confederate Cruisers were Equipped. London, England: Richard Bentley & Son, 1882. 

Donnell, Ezekiel. Chronological and Statistical History of Cotton. New York, New York: James Sutton & Co, 1872.

Ellison, Thomas. Gleanings and Reminiscences. Liverpool, England: Henry Young & Sons, 1905.

Ellison, Thomas. The Cotton Trade of Great Britain. London, England: Effingham Wilson, 1886.

H. O. Brewer to C. K. Prioleau, March 16, 1865, Fraser Trenholm Collection, Merseyside Maritime Archives and Library, Liverpool, England.

J. D. Bulloch to General C. J. McRae and Fraser, Trenholm and Company, March 18, 1865, Fraser Trenholm Collection, Merseyside Maritime Archives and Library, Liverpool, England.

G. Wigg to C. K. Prioleau, March 24, 1865, Fraser Trenholm Collection, Merseyside Maritime Archives and Library, Liverpool, England.

G. Wigg to C. K. Prioleau, March 25, 1865, Fraser Trenholm Collection, Merseyside Maritime Archives and Library, Liverpool, England.

Liverpool Cotton Brokers' Association Records, UK National Archives.

Liverpool Mercury (Liverpool, England), April 9, 1864-January 24, 1866.

“Master Willie Pape, The American Pianist.” London Illustrated News (London, England), June 20, 1863.

Slack, John. Remarks on Cotton. Liverpool, England: J Lang, 1817.

Spence, James. The American Union; Its effect on national character and policy, with an enquiry into secessation as a Constitutional Right and the causes of the disruption. London, England: Richard Bentley, 1861.

Stubbs, Lucas P. In Memoriam: William Stubbs, Civil Engineer and Architect; an account of his life and work. Typescript biography. 920 STU. Liverpool PRO.

Williams, Maurice. Seven Years' History of the Cotton Trade of Europe. Liverpool, England: William Potter, 1868.