Morris Street Business District

Exhibit Splash Image

Additional Credits and Further Reading

The Authors

Tim Condo, Preservation Society of Charleston

Kayla Halberg, Architectural Historian

Brittany V. Lavelle Tulla, BVL Historic Preservation Research

Anna-Catherine Carroll, Preservation Society of Charleston

Erin Minnigan, Preservation Society of Charleston

Editorial Contributors

Rachel Donaldson, College of Charleston

Kevin Eberle, Charleston School of Law

Nathaniel Robert Walker, College of Charleston

Sources and Further Readings


Bridgens, Richard P. An Original Map of Charleston, S.C. 1852. Charleston County Public Library.

The Investiture of Charleston, S.C. by the English army. With the position of each corps. 1780. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division

Williams, W. Plan of Charleston, S.C. 1849. Alabama Maps, University of Alabama. 


Ashtabula Weekly Telegraph (Ashtabula, OH)

Charleston Courier (Charleston, SC)

Charleston Daily News (Charleston, SC)

Charleston Mercury (Charleston, SC) 

Evening Post (Charleston, SC)

News & Courier (Charleston, SC)

New York Times (New York, NY) 

Post & Courier (Charleston, SC)

For a complete list of historic African-American newspapers digitized by the Library of Congress through the Chronicling America project see:

Archival Collections

Ethyl Richards Brown Papers, Avery Research Center of African American History and Culture, Charleston, SC. 

McClennan-Banks, Vertical File, Waring Historical Library, Charleston, SC.


1861 City of Charleston Census

1880 U.S. Federal Census

1910 U.S. Federal Census

1940 U.S. Federal Census

Additional Primary Sources

Breibart, Solomon. Interview by the Jewish Historical Society of South Carolina. March 16, 2004. 

Charleston County Register of Deeds, Deed Books H13 and N9, Charleston County, SC.

City of Charleston Directories, 1870-1979, Charleston County Public Library, Charleston, SC.

Green, Victor and George I. Smith. The Negro Motorist Green Book. New York: Green & Smith, 1937.  

Orr, J.L. Message to the General Assembly of South Carolina: Emigration. Columbia: Phoenix Book and Job Power Press, 1868. 

The Constitution of the State of South Carolina. Article I, § 39. 1868.


Blackweider, Julia Kirk. Styling Jim Crow: African American Beauty Training During Segregation. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2003. 

Borick, Carol. A Gallant Defense: The Siege of Charleston, 1780. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003. 

Butler, Nic. “The South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1868.” Charleston Time Machine, produced by Charleston County Public Library. March 2, 2018.

Edgar, Walter. The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press, 2006

Fraser, Walter J. Charleston! Charleston!: The History of a Southern City.  Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1992.

Fields, Mamie Garvin and Karen Fields. Lemon Swamp and Other Places: A Carolina Memoir. New York: The Free Press, 1983. 

Hicks, Theresa, ed. South Carolina Indians, Indian Traders and Other Ethnic Connections Beginning in 1670. Spartanburg: The Reprint Company, 1998.

Li, Jan. “A History of the Chinese in Charleston.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 99, no. 1 (1998). 

Mills, Quincy Terrell. “‘Color-Line’ Barbers and the Emergence of a Black Public Space: A Social and Political History of Black Barbers and Barber Shops, 1930-1970.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2006. 

McFall, John A. Resisting Jim Crow: The Autobiography of Dr. John A. McFallEdited by Lahnice McFall Hollister. Charleston: Kittawah Press, 2021. 

Morris, George J. Charleston’s Greek Heritage. Charleston: The History Press, 2008. 

Powers, Bernard. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 1994. 

Powers, Bernard. "Community Evolution and Race Relations in Reconstruction Charleston." The South Carolina Historical Magazine 95, no. 1 (1994).

Randl, Chad. Preservation Brief 46: The Preservation and Reuse of Historic Gas Stations. National Park Service. September 2018. 

Rockoff, Stuart, Dale Rosengarten, and Alyssa Neely. “Charleston Jewry: 320 Years and Counting.” Jewish Historical Society of South Carolina 14, no. 2 (2009). 

Smith, Henry A.M. “The Baronies of South Carolina.” The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine 15, no. 4 (1914). 

Stephens, Lester D. Science, Race, and Religion in the American South: John Bachman and the Charleston Circle of Naturalists, 1815-1895. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Strickland, Jeffery. “How the Germans Became White Southerners: German Immigrants and African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina, 1860-1880.” Journal of American Ethnic History 28, vol. 1 (2008). 

The City University of New York, ed. The Papers of Robert Morris, 1781-1784. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1975. 

Waring Historical Library. “McClennan Banks Hospital & Training School for Nurses.” Medical University of South Carolina Library, 2012.