A Tribute to the Mother Emanuel Church

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Educational Resources

Building on the #Charlestonsyllabus, this educational resource guide offers an overview of text, media, and online resources that provide insights into issues surrounding the Mother Emanuel Church shooting, as well as the history of African Americans, AME churches, racial inequality, and racial violence in Charleston, the state of South Carolina, and throughout the U.S. South.

Featured Resources

The #Charlestonsyllabus was conceived by Chad Williams, Associate Professor of African and Afro-American Studies at Brandeis University. He is also an affiliate of the African American Intellectual History Society, the home of the completed #Charlestonsyllabus. Following the massacre at the Mother Emanuel Church, Professor Chad Williams developed this online resource to provide the public with an opportunity to increase their knowledge about African American history in Charleston in beyond. Individuals could also suggest additional resources through social media.

College of Charleston LibGuide: #Charlestonsyllabus,

Online Materials


African American Christianity Pt. I: To the Civil War

African American Christianity Pt. II: To the Great Migration, 1865-1920

African Methodist Episcopal Church

Emanuel AME Church Shooting 
Post and Courier,
Charleston, South Carolina 

History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church

Mother Emanuel AME Church History

National Park Service: Emanuel AME Church

Official Website of the AME Church

Religion in African American History

Special Section: Mass Shooting at Emanuel AME 
WCIV ABC News 4, Charleston, South Carolina

SCIWAY: Emanuel AME Church

The Church in the Southern Black Community

Op-Eds, Editorials, and Articles

Applebaum, Yoni. "Why is the Flag Still There?" The Atlantic (Washington, DC), June 21, 2015. 
Brison, Ron. "Mother Emanuel Still Shines a Light." The Post and Courier (Charleston, SC), June 25, 2015. 
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “Take Down the Confederate Flag – Now.” The Atlantic (Washington, DC), June 18, 2015.
Cobb, Jelani. “Terrorism in Charleston.” The New Yorker (New York, NY), June 29, 2015. 
Dyson, Michael Eric. "Love and Terror in the Black Church." New York Times (Washington, DC), June 20, 2015.
Egerton, Douglas R. “Before Charleston’s Church Shooting: A Long History of Attacks.” New York Times (New York, NY), June 18, 2015. 
Graham, David A. "How Much Has Changed Since the Birmingham Church Bombing?" The Atlantic (Washington, DC), June 18, 2015. 
Greene II, Robert. “Racism Can’t Destroy This Charleston Church.” Politico (Arlington, VA), June 19, 2015.
Lessane, Patricia Williams. “No Sanctuary in Charleston." New York Times (New York, NY),  June 18, 2015.
Painter, Nell Irvin. “What is Whiteness?” New York Times (New York, NY), June 20, 2015.
Parker, Adam. "Emanuel AME Church Reopens with Display of Faith, Hope and Unity." Post and Courier (Charleston, SC), July 21, 2015.
Remnick, David. “Blood at the Root: In the Aftermath of the Emanuel Nine. The New Yorker (New York, NY), September 28, 2015.
Remnick, David.“Charleston and the Age of Obama.” The New Yorker (New York, NY), June 19, 2015. 
Sinha, Manisha. “The Long and Proud History of Charleston’s AME Church.” Huffington Post (New York, NY), June 19, 2015.
Smith, Glenn, Robert Behre, and Melissa Boughton. "Nine Dead After 'Hate Crime' Shooting at Emanuel AME." Post and Courier (Charleston, SC), June 17, 2015.  
Staff report, "In Their Words: Local and Regional Reaction to Emanuel AME Shooting." The Beaufort Gazette (Hilton Head, SC), June 18, 2015. 

Print Materials

The Mother Emanuel Church

Frazier, Herb, Bernard E. Powers, and Marjory Wentorth. We Are Charleston: Tragedy and Triumph at Mother Emanuel. Thomas Nelson, 2016.

The History of the AME (African Methodist Episcopal) Church

Campbell, James. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
George, Carol V. R. Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Emergence of Independent Black Churches, 1760-1840. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Newman, Richard. Freedom's Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers. New York: New York University Press, 2008.
Wesley, Charles. Richard Allen: Apostle of FreedomWashington, DC: Associated Publishers, 1969.

Historical Overview of Violence against African Americans

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1963.
Feimster, Crystal. Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching. 2009.
Grimsted, David. American Mobbing, 1821-1861: Toward Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Hartman, Saidiya V. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth Century AmericaNew York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Hill, Rebecca Nell. Men, Mobs, and Law: Anti-lynching and Labor Defense in US Radical History. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.
MacLean, Nancy. Behind the Mask of Chivalry: the Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
McGuire, Danielle. At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance - A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to Black Power. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.
Smith McKoy, Sheila. When Whites Riot: Writing Race and Violence in American and South African Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001.
Pfeifer, Michael J. Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2013.
Rosen, Hannah. Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Post-Emancipation South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Stevenson, Brenda E. The Contested Murder of Latasha Harlins: Justice, Gender, and the Origins of the LA Riots. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Waldrep, Christopher. Lynching in America: A History in Documents. New York: New York University Press, 2006.
Williams, Kidada. They Left Great Marks on Me: African American Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I. New York: New York University Press, 2012.
Wood, Amy Louise. Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Race and Religion in the South

Austin, Allan D. African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Blum, Edward J. The Color of Christ: The Son of God and the Saga of Race in America. Chapel Hill: Unversity of North Carolina, 2012.
Campbell, James. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Carter, J. Kameron. Race: A Theological Account. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Cone, James H. The Cross and the Lynching Tree. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2011.
George, Carol V. R. Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Emergence of Independent Black Churches, 1760-1840. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Goetz, Rebecca Anne. The Baptism of Early Virginia: How Christianity Created Race. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
Harvey, Paul. Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities Among Southern Baptists, 1865-1925. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
Holloway, Karla.  Passed On: African American Mourning Stories. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.
Irons, Charles. Origins of Proslavery Christianity: White and Black Evangelicals in Colonial and Antebellum Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.
Jennings, Willie James. The Christian Imagination: Theology and the Origins of Race. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.
Jones, William R. Is God A White Racist?: A Preamble to Black Theology. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1973.
Powers, Bernard. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. Fayetteville, University of Arkansas, 1994.
Rable, George, C. God’s Almost Chosen Peoples: A Religious History of the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
Raboteau, Albert. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Wilmore, Gayraud S. Black Religion and Black Radicalism: An Interpretation of the Religious History of African Americans. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1963.
Wilson, Charles Reagan. Baptized in Blood: The Religion of the Lost Cause, 1865-1920. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009.

Resistance to Racism and Oppression

Bloom, Joshua and Waldo Martin, Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party. Berkeley: University of California, 2013. 
Bonner, Robert. Colors and Blood: Flag Passions of the Confederate South. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002. 
Carson, Clayborne. The Eyes on the Prize: Civil Rights Reader. New York: Penguin, 1991. 
Coski, John. The Confederate Battle Flag: America’s Most Embattled EmblemCambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005. 
Estes, Steve. Charleston in Black and White: Race and Power in the South after the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University North Carolina Press, 2015. 
Joseph, Peniel E. Waiting ‘til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2006. 
McGuire, Danielle. At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance - A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to Black Power. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.
Morris, Aldon D. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change. New York: Free Press, 1984. 
Prince, K. Michael. Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys! South Carolina and the Confederate Flag. Columbia, University of South Carolina, 2004. 
Sugrue, Thomas. Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North. New York: Random House, 2008. 
Tyson, Timothy. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, 1999.
Umoja, Akinyele. We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2013. 
Williams, Rhonda. Concrete Demands: The Search for Black Power in the 20th Century. New York: Routledge, 2015.  

Documentary Film

The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross. Directed by Sabin Streeter. 2013. Arlington, VA: PBS, 2013.
The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975. Directed by Goran Hugo Olsson. 2011. MPI Home Video, 2011. 
Black Wall Street, Tulsa
. Directed by Harry Moore and Michael Carter. 2007. Oakland, CA: Phoenix Media Studios, 2007. DVD.    
Freedom Riders
. Directed by Stanley Nelson. 2010. New York: Flightlight Media, 2011. 
Freedom Summer
. Directed by Stanley Nelson. 2014. New York: Firelight Films, 2014.    
A History of Slavery in America
.  Directed by Rhonda Fabian and Jerry Baber. 1997. Wynnewood, PA: Schlessinger Media, 2007. DVD.  
Racism is Real. Brave New Films. 2015.   
Scarred Justice: The Orangeburg Massacre 1968
. Directed by Bestor Cram and Judy Richardson. 2009. San Fransisco: California Newsreel, 2009. DVD.  
A Seat at the Table: Pathways to Reconciliation
. Directed by Betsy Newman. 2015. Arlington, VA: PBS, 2015.