Sources

About the Authors
Carl Wise is a visiting assistant professor in Hispanic Studies at the College of Charleston. He received his Ph.D. in Romance Languages at the University of Georgia, and his research focuses on the political and ideological discourse of the Spanish Empire.  

David Wheat is an assistant professor in the History department at Michigan State University. He specializes in colonial Latin America and the early modern Iberian Atlantic world. His research interests include migration and diaspora, ports and maritime networks, and cross-cultural exchange. He received his Ph.D. in History from Vanderbilt University. 

Editorial Contributors
Daniel Domingues, University of Missouri
Nafees Khan, Emory University
Assan Sarr, Ohio University

Slavery in Iberia and the Mediterranean World
Blumenthal, Debra. Enemies and Familiars: Slavery and Mastery in Fifteenth-Century Valencia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2009.

Constable, Olivia Remie.  “Muslim Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations.” In Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, eds. Scott Waugh and Peter Diehl, 264-284. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Davis, Robert. C. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800. London, United Kingdom: Palgrave McMillan, 2004.

Fonseca, Jorge. Escravos no Sul de Portugal, séculos XVI-XVII. Lisbon, Portugal: Editorial Vulgata, 2002.

Franco Silva, Alfonso. La esclavitud en Sevilla y su tierra a fines de la Edad Media. Sevilla, Spain: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, 1979.

Friedman, Ellen G. Spanish Captives in North Africa in the Early Modern Age. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

Periáñez Gómez, Rocío.  Negros, mulatos y blancos: los esclavos en Extremadura durante la edad moderna. Badajoz, Spain: Diputación de Badajoz, 2010.

Saunders, A.C. de C.M. A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441-1555. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Stella, Alessandro. Histoires d’esclaves dans la péninsule Ibérique. Paris, France: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 2000.

Verlinden, Charles. L’Esclavage dans l’Europe médiévale, tome I: Péninsule Ibérique. Brugge, Belgium: De Tempel, 1955.

Iberian Expansion in Western Africa and Atlantic Islands
Albuquerque, Luís de, and María Emília Madeira Santos, coords. História Geral de Cabo Verde, vols. I-III. Lisbon, Portugal: Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical; Praia: Direcção Geral do Património Cultural de Cabo Verde, 1991-2002.

Amaral, Ilídio do. O Consulado de Paulo Dias de Novais: Angola no último quartel do século XVI e primeiro do século XVII. Lisbon: Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, 2000.

Blackmore, Josiah. Moorings: Portuguese Expansion and the Writing of Africa. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.   

Boxer, C.R. The Church Militant and Iberian Expansion, 1440-1770. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Brooks, George E. Landlords & Strangers: Ecology, Society, and Trade in Western Africa, 1000-1600. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993.

Curtin, Philip D. “The Lure of Bambuk Gold.” The Journal of African History 14:4 (1973): 623-631. 

Disney, A.R. A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807. Vol 2: The Portuguese Empire. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Elbl, Ivana. “Cross-Cultural Trade and Diplomacy: Portuguese Relations with West Africa, 1441-1521.” Journal of World History 3:2 (1992): 165-204. 

Garfield, Robert. A History of São Tomé Island, 1470-1655: The Key to Guinea. San Francisco, California: Mellen Research University Press, 1992.

Hilton, Anne. The Kingdom of Kongo. Oxford, Umited Kingdom: Clarendon Press, 1985.

Rumeu de Armas, Antonio. España en el África Atlántica, 2nd ed. rev, 2 vols. Las Palmas, Spain: Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1996.

Verlinden, Charles. The Beginnings of Modern Colonization. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1970.

Vogt, John. Portuguese Rule on the Gold Coast, 1469-1682. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1979.

Zurara, Gomes Eanes de. Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea. Trans. Charles Raymond Beazley and Edgar Prestage. Vol. 1. New York, New York: Burt Franklin Publisher, 1896.

— Chronica do descobrimento e conquista de Guineé. Paris, France: J.P. Ailladus, 1841.

Early Iberian Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Donnan, Elizabeth. Ed. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America. Vol 1. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institute, 1930.   

Elbl, Ivana. “The Volume of the Early Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450-1521.” The Journal of African History 38:1 (1997): 31-75.

García Fuentes, Lutgardo. “Licencias para la introducción de esclavos en Indias y envíos desde Sevilla en el siglo XVI.” Jahrbuch für Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaftund Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas 19 (1982): 1-46.

Green, Toby. The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300-1589. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Klein, Herbert S. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge, United Kindgom: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Lobo Cabrera, Manuel. “Los mercaderes y la trata de esclavos en Gran Canaria. Siglo XVI.” In Homenaje a Alfonso Trujillo, II: 47-87. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Aula de Cultura del Excmo. Cabildo Insular de Tenerife, 1982.

Mendes, António de Almeida.  “Portugal e o tráfico de escravos na primeira metade do século XVI.” Studia Africana 7 (2004): 13-30.

Mendes, António de Almeida. “Les réseaux de la traite ibérique dans l’Atlantique nord. Aux origines de la traite atlantique (1440-1640).”  Les Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 4 (Juillet-Août 2008): 739-768.

Mira Caballos, Esteban. “Las licencias de esclavos negros a Hispanoamérica (1544-1550).”  Revista de Indias 54, n.201 (1994): 273-297.

Pérez García, Rafael M., and Manuel F. Fernández Chaves. “Sevilla y la trata negrera atlántica: envíos de esclavos desde Cabo Verde a la América española, 1569-1579.” In Estudios de Historia Moderna en Homenaje al profesor Antonio García-Baquero, coord. León Carlos Álvarez Santaló, 597-622. Seville, Spain: Universidad de Sevilla, 2009.

Scelle, Georges. La traite négrière aux Indes de Castille, contrats et traités d’assiento: étude de droit public et d’histoire diplomatique puisée aux sources originales et accompagnée de plusieurs documents inédits. Paris, France: Larose et Tenin, 1906. 

Ventura, María da Graça A. Mateus. Negreiros portugueses na rota das Indias de Castela (1541-1556). Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 1999.

Worger, William H., Nancy L. Clark and Edward Alters Alpers. Eds. Africa and the West: A Documentary History. Vol. 1. Oxford, United Kingdom and New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. 

Northern Europeans and the Early Iberian Slave Trade
Andrews, Kenneth R. The Spanish Caribbean: Trade and Plunder, 1530-1630. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1978.

Heywood, Linda M., and John K. Thornton. Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Kupperman, Karen O. Providence Island, 1630-1641: The Other Puritan Colony. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 

Siete Partidas and Spanish American Slave Codes
de la Fuente, Alejandro. “Slaves and the Creation of Legal Rights in Cuba: Coartación and Papel.” Hispanic American Historical Review 87:4 (Nov 2007): 659-692.

Landers, Jane. Black Society in Spanish Florida. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Tannenbaum, Frank. Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1963. 

Slavery and Demographic Decline in the Early Spanish Caribbean
Guitar, Lynne A. “Cultural Genesis: Relationships among Indians, Africans and Spaniards in Rural Hispaniola, First Half of the Sixteenth Century.” Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1998.

Jiménez Graziani, Morella A. La esclavitud indígena en Venezuela (siglo XVI). Caracas, Venezuela: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1986.

Livi-Bacci, Massimo. Conquest: The Destruction of the American Indios. Trans. Carl Ipsen. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity, 2008.

Marrero, Leví. Cuba: Economía y sociedad, 15 vols. Madrid, Spain: Editorial Playor, 1975-1992.

Mira Caballos, Esteban. El indio antillano: repartimiento, encomienda y esclavitud (1492-1542). Seville, Spain: Muñoz Moya Editor, 1997. 

Moya Pons, Frank. Después de Colón: trabajo, sociedad y política en la economía del oro. Madrid, Spain: Alianza América, 1987.

Rodríguez Morel, Genaro. “The Sugar Economy of Española in the Sixteenth Century.” In Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680, ed. Stuart B. Schwartz, 85-114. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Links
The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, "Iberian Roots of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade," David Wheat
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/origins-slavery/essays/iberian-roots-transatlantic-slave-trade-1440–1640

Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave trade Database
http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces