After Slavery: Educator Resources

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Black Political Mobilization and Demobilization


Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: Origins of White Supremacy in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Gaines, Kevin K. Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century.Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Gordon, Fon Louise. Caste and Class: the Black Experience in Arkansas, 1880-1920.Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2007.

Haley, John H. Charles N. Hunter and Race Relations in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

Harlan, Louis B. Booker T. Washington (2 vols.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 1975 and 1986.

Litwack, Leon. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York, New York: Vintage, 1999. 

Logan, Rayford W. The Betrayal of the Negro: from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Da Capo Press, 1997.

McMillen, Neil. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Meier, August. Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1964.

Smith, John David. Black Judas: a Story of Racial Self-Hatred in America. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Verney, Kevern. The Art of the Possible: Booker T. Washington and Black Leadership in the United States, 1881-1925. New York, New York: Routledge, 2001.

Wharton, Vernon Lane. The Negro in Mississippi, 1865-1890. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1984. 

White, Deborah Gray. Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1884-1994. New York, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.

Articles, Reviews, Collections:

Calista, Donald J. "Booker T. Washington: Another Look," Journal of Negro History 49:4 (Oct. 1964): 240-255.

Cox, Oliver C. "Leadership among Negroes in the United States," in Alvin W. Goulder, ed. Studies in Leadership: Leadership and Democratic Action. KentUnited Kingdom: Russell & Russell Publishers, 1965. 228-271. 

_____, "The Leadership of Booker T. Washington," Social Forces 30 (1951): 91-97.

Kelly, Brian. "Black Elites Confront the 'Rabid Faction': Booker T. Washington, Industrial Accommodation, and the Labor Question in the Jim Crow South," in Eric Arnesen, ed. The Black Worker: Race,  Labor, and Civil Rights since Emancipation. Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

_____. "Review of Steven Hahn's A Nation under Our Feet,' Labor: Studies in the Working-Class History of the Americas3 (Fall 2004): 145-47.

Lichtenstein, Alex. "Roots of Black Nationalism?," American Quarterly 57:1 (2005) 261-269.

Meier, August. "Negro Class Structure and Ideology in the Age of Booker T. Washington," Phylon 23 (Fall 1962): 258-66.

Reed, Adolph Jr. "Romancing Jim Crow," in Class Notes: Posing as Politics and Other Thoughts on the American Scene, 14-24. New York, New York: New Press, 2001.

Stein, Judith. "'Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others': the Political Economy of Racism in the United States," Science and Society 38:4 (Winter 1974-5): 422-53.

Walker, Clarence E. Deromanticizing Black History: Critical Essays and Reappraisals. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.

Primary Source Materials and Contemporary Accounts

Fortune, Timothy Thomas. Black and White: Land, Labor and Politics in the South. New York, New York: Washington Square Press, 2007.