Equalization Schools: South Carolina’s History of Unequal Education

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Educational Resources


Baker, R. Scott. Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926-1972. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

Brinson, Claudia Smith. Stories of Struggle: The Clash over Civil Rights in South Carolina. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 2020. 

Clyburn, James with Jennifer Revels. Uncommon Courage: The Story of Briggs v. Elliott, South Carolina’s Unsung Civil Rights Battle. Columbia, SC: Palmetto Conservation Foundation Press, 2004.

Dubose, Sonny. The Road to Brown: The Leadership of a Soldier of the Cross Reverend J.A. DeLaine. Orangeburg, SC: Williams Publishing, 2002.

Gona, Ophelia De Laine. Dawn of Desegregation: J.A. De Laine and Briggs v. Elliott. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2011.

Hoffschwelle, Mary S. The Rosenwald Schools of the American South. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2006.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America’s Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage Books, 2004.

Lare, Marvin Ira, ed. Champions of Civil and Human Rights in South Carolina: Volume 1, Dawn of the Movement Era, 1955-1967. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2016.

Quint, Howard H. Profile in Black and White: A Frank Portrait of South Carolina. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1958. 

Sullivan, Patricia. Lift Every Voice: The NAACP and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: The New Press, 2009.

Newspaper Articles

Bowers, Paul et. al. “Minimally Adequate: How South Carolina’s ‘minimally adequate; Education System Fails Too Many Students.” Charleston Post and Courier, series first published November 2018, available online at: https://www.postandcourier.com/news/minimally_adequate/, accessed 28 November 2018.

Brown, Emma. “On the Anniversary of Brown v. Board, New Evidence that U.S. Schools are Resegregating,” The Washington Post, 17 May 2016, available online at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/education/wp/2016/05/17/on-the-anniversary-of-brown-v-board-new-evidence-that-u-s-schools-are-resegregating/.

Levine, Martin. “NAACP Fights Black-Majority School Closings in Carolina Corridor of Shame.” Non-Profit Quarterly, 17 April 2018, available online at https://nonprofitquarterly.org/naacp-fights-black-majority-school-closings-carolina-corridor-shame/.

The State Special Report. “Together Let Us Sweetly Live: How a South Carolina Desegregation Case Caught the Attention of the Nation.” The State (Columbia, SC), 1 June 2003.

Scoppe, Cindi Ross. “Hard Truths, Daunting Challenges in SC School Equity Decision,” The State (Columbia, SC), 19 November 2014, available online at http://www.thestate.com/opinion/opn-columns-blogs/cindi-ross-scoppe/article13915907.html.

Self, Jamie and Bristow Marchant. “Court Throws Out Landmark SC School Equity Lawsuit,” The State (Columbia, SC), 22 November 2017, available online at: http://www.thestate.com/news/politics-government/article185625508.html.

Articles, Theses, and Digital Resources

Allen, Delia B. “The Forgotten Brown Case: Briggs v. Elliott and Its Legacy in South Carolina.” Peabody Journal of Education, vol. 94, no. 4, 2019: 442-467.

Bartels, Virginia B. “The History of South Carolina Schools.” Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention, and Advancement, 2010, available online at www.teachercadets.com/media/documents/2010/8/History_of_South_Carolina_Schools.pdf, accessed 27 August 2013.

Dobrasko, Rebekah M. “Upholding ‘Separate but Equal:’ South Carolina’s School Equalization Program, 1951-1955.” Masters thesis, University of South Carolina, 2005. http://www.scequalizationschools.org/uploads/1/1/7/0/11700188/hist_799_thesis_final_draft.pdf.

Dobrasko, Rebekah M. “South Carolina’s Equalization Schools, 1951-1959.” Website available at http://scequalizationschools.org, 2008, updated through 2021.

Frankenberg, Erica and Chungmei Lee. “Race in in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts.” The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, August 2002.

Hornsby, Jr., Benjamin F. “Stepping Stone to the Supreme Court.” Topics in African American History I. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1992.

Lochbaum, Julie Magruder. “The Word Made Flesh: The Desegregation Leadership of the Rev. J.A. DeLaine.” PhD diss., University of South Carolina, 1993.

New South Associates. “Journey to Equal Education.” Website available at: https://journeytoequaleducation.com/, 2020.

Smyth, William D. “Segregation in Charleston in the 1950s: A Decade of Transition.” South Carolina Historical Magazine, vol. 92 no. 2 (April 1991): 99-123.

South Caroliniana Library. "Rosenwald School of South Carolina: An Oral History Exhibit." Website available at https://delphi.tcl.sc.edu/library/digital/collections/scrosenwald/interviews.html, accessed 29 January 2022. 

Southern, David W. “Beyond Jim Crow Liberalism: Judge Waring’s Fight Against Segregation in South Carolina, 1942-52.” The Journal of Negro History, vol. 66 no. 3 (Autumn 1981): 209-227.

State Educational Finance Commission. “South Carolina’s Educational Revolution: A Report of Progress in South Carolina.” Columbia: State Educational Finance Commission, 1955.

Wellington, Darryl Lorenzo. “Ambiguous Legacy: Summerton, South Carolina and Briggs v. Elliott.” Dissent Magazine, 2004, reprinted online at http://usslave.blogspot.com/2011/06/brilliant-article-from-2004-edition-of.html, accessed 16 July 2012.

Wilson, David C. “The Road to Equality in Educating African American Students: Horry County Public Schools, (1930-2019). Self-published: Wilson Consulting Services, LLC, 2019.